Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in Patients at Extremely High Risk of Perioperative Mortality.
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BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Transcatheter procedures are considered the therapy of choice for high-risk patients who are not eligible for surgical aortic valve replacement. Although its utility is debated, the logistic EuroSCORE I is still the most frequently used risk calculator for cardiac surgery in Europe, and was used in the present study to identify patients with an extremely high risk of predicted perioperative mortality. METHODS: This single-centre study included 319 consecutive patients who underwent transapical or transaortic transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) between September 2008 and December 2012. Combined hybrid procedures and transfemoral TAVI patients were excluded. Those patients predicted to have an excessively high risk of perioperative mortality (EuroSCORE >40%, n = 90) were compared to those with a lower calculated risk (EuroSCORE <40%, n = 229) with respect to perioperative complications, short-term-mortality and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events. RESULTS: The 30-day mortality was 12.2% (n = 11) in the extremely high-risk group, and 6.6% (n = 15) in the lower-risk group (p = 0.08). There were no significant differences in the stroke rate (3.3% versus 0.4%, p = 0.07) or the incidence of acute kidney injury stage 3 (11.1% versus 5.2%, p = 0.32). The establishment of cardiopulmonary bypass (3.9% versus 11.1%, p = 0.02), conversion to sternotomy (1.3% versus 5.6%, p = 0.04), mean ventilation time (15.2 h versus 43.5 h, p = 0.007) and length of intensive care unit stay (2.9 days versus 6.8 days, p <0.001) were all significantly lower in the lower-risk group. CONCLUSION: The data acquired verified that TAVI is a safe procedure, even in patients with an extremely high predicted risk of perioperative mortality and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events. Furthermore, the analysis substantiated the need for individualized risk evaluation.
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