Hypercalcemic cardiomyopathy associated with primary hyperparathyroidism mimicking primary obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
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A 72-year-old woman presented to hospital with rapidly progressive dyspnea and chest pain on exertion. Physical findings included a grade 3/6 systolic murmur increased by the Valsalva manoeuvre. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve and critical dynamic outflow tract obstruction. The myocardium was strikingly heterogeneous with hyperdynamic left ventricular systolic function. Laboratory findings included severe hypercalcemia secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism. The patient's outcome was unfavourable with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, pancreatitis, shock, severe acidosis and death. Postmortem examination confirmed the presence of severe concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, a narrowed left ventricular outflow tract and localized endocardial fibrosis of the left interventricular septum. Microscopic findings showed diffuse calcium deposits of the myocardium, coronary arteries, kidneys and lungs. This appears to be the first report of two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic findings in hypercalcemic cardiomyopathy mimicking obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
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