The 2015 Canadian Hypertension Education Program Recommendations for Blood Pressure Measurement, Diagnosis, Assessment of Risk, Prevention, and Treatment of Hypertension Academic Article uri icon

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abstract

  • The Canadian Hypertension Education Program reviews the hypertension literature annually and provides detailed recommendations regarding hypertension diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment. This report provides the updated evidence-based recommendations for 2015. This year, 4 new recommendations were added and 2 existing recommendations were modified. A revised algorithm for the diagnosis of hypertension is presented. Two major changes are proposed: (1) measurement using validated electronic (oscillometric) upper arm devices is preferred over auscultation for accurate office blood pressure measurement; (2) if the visit 1 mean blood pressure is increased but < 180/110 mm Hg, out-of-office blood pressure measurements using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (preferably) or home blood pressure monitoring should be performed before visit 2 to rule out white coat hypertension, for which pharmacologic treatment is not recommended. A standardized ambulatory blood pressure monitoring protocol and an update on automated office blood pressure are also presented. Several other recommendations on accurate measurement of blood pressure and criteria for diagnosis of hypertension have been reorganized. Two other new recommendations refer to smoking cessation: (1) tobacco use status should be updated regularly and advice to quit smoking should be provided; and (2) advice in combination with pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation should be offered to all smokers. The following recommendations were modified: (1) renal artery stenosis should be primarily managed medically; and (2) renal artery angioplasty and stenting could be considered for patients with renal artery stenosis and complicated, uncontrolled hypertension. The rationale for these recommendation changes is discussed.

authors

  • Daskalopoulou, Stella S
  • Rabi, Doreen M
  • Zarnke, Kelly B
  • Dasgupta, Kaberi
  • Nerenberg, Kara
  • Cloutier, Lyne
  • Gelfer, Mark
  • Lamarre-Cliche, Maxime
  • Milot, Alain
  • Bolli, Peter
  • McKay, Donald W
  • Tremblay, Guy
  • McLean, Donna
  • Tobe, Sheldon W
  • Ruzicka, Marcel
  • Burns, Kevin D
  • Vallée, Michel
  • Ramesh Prasad, GV
  • Lebel, Marcel
  • Feldman, Ross D
  • Selby, Peter
  • Pipe, Andrew
  • Schiffrin, Ernesto L
  • McFarlane, Philip A
  • Oh, Paul
  • Hegele, Robert A
  • Khara, Milan
  • Wilson, Thomas W
  • Brian Penner, S
  • Burgess, Ellen
  • Herman, Robert J
  • Bacon, Simon L
  • Rabkin, Simon W
  • Gilbert, Richard E
  • Campbell, Tavis S
  • Grover, Steven
  • Honos, George
  • Lindsay, Patrice
  • Hill, Michael D
  • Coutts, Shelagh B
  • Gubitz, Gord
  • Campbell, Norman RC
  • Moe, Gordon W
  • Howlett, Jonathan G
  • Boulanger, Jean-Martin
  • Prebtani, Ally
  • Larochelle, Pierre
  • Leiter, Lawrence A
  • Jones, Charlotte
  • Ogilvie, Richard I
  • Woo, Vincent
  • Kaczorowski, Janusz
  • Trudeau, Luc
  • Petrella, Robert J
  • Hiremath, Swapnil
  • Stone, James A
  • Drouin, Denis
  • Lavoie, Kim L
  • Hamet, Pavel
  • Fodor, George
  • Grégoire, Jean C
  • Fournier, Anne
  • Lewanczuk, Richard
  • Dresser, George K
  • Sharma, Mukul
  • Reid, Debra
  • Benoit, Geneviève
  • Feber, Janusz
  • Harris, Kevin C
  • Poirier, Luc
  • Padwal, Raj S

publication date

  • May 2015