Thrombotic Complications and Thromboprophylaxis Across All Three Stages of Single Ventricle Heart Palliation
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OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence of thrombotic complications across all 3 stages of single ventricle palliation and the association between thromboprophylaxis use and thrombotic risk. STUDY DESIGN: Two separate cross-sectional studies were performed that included 195 patients born between 2003-2008 and 162 patients who underwent Fontan after 2000. RESULTS: The incidence of thrombotic complications was 40% and 28% after initial palliation and superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC), respectively; 5-year freedom from thrombotic complications after Fontan was 79%. Thromboprophylaxis was initiated for 70%, 46%, and 94% of patients after initial palliation, SCPC, and Fontan, respectively. Thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin (vs no thromboprophylaxis) was associated with a reduction in risk of thrombotic complications after initial palliation (hazard ratio [HR] 0.5, P = .05) and SCPC (HR 0.2, P = .04). Thromboprophylaxis with warfarin was associated with a reduction in thrombotic complications after Fontan (HR 0.27, P = .05 vs acetylsalicylic acid; HR 0.18, P = .02 vs no thromboprophylaxis). Thrombotic complications were associated with increased mortality after initial palliation (HR 5.5, P < .001) and SCPC (HR 12.5, P < .001). Three patients experienced major bleeding complications without permanent sequelae (2 enoxaparin, 1 warfarin). CONCLUSIONS: Given the negative impact of thrombotic complications on survival, the low risk of serious bleeding complications, and the association between thromboprophylaxis and lowered thrombotic complication risk across all 3 palliative stages, routine use of thromboprophylaxis from the initial palliation to the early post-Fontan period in this population may be indicated.
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