Thromboxane Prostanoid Receptor Activation Amplifies Airway Stretch-Activated Contractions Assessed in Perfused Intact Bovine Bronchial Segments
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A deep inspiration (DI) produces bronchodilation in healthy individuals. Conversely, in asthmatics, DIs are less effective in producing bronchodilation and can cause more rapid airway renarrowing and even bronchoconstriction in moderate to severe asthmatics. It is noteworthy that the manner by which a DI is able to cause bronchoconstriction via a stretch-activated contraction (R(stretch)) is thought to correlate positively with airway inflammation. Asthmatic airway inflammation is associated with increased production of thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)) and subsequent thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor activation, causing the heightened contractility of airway smooth muscle. In this study, we sought to investigate the effect of TxA(2) on airway R(stretch) by using bovine bronchial segments. In brief, these intact bronchial segments (2 mm in diameter) were dissected, side branches were ligated, and the tissues were mounted horizontally in an organ bath. R(stretch) was elicited by varying the transmural pressure under isovolumic conditions. Using a pharmacological approach, we showed a reduced R(stretch) response in tissues pretreated with indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, a result mimicked by pretreatment with the TP-selective receptor antagonist 4-(Z)-6-(2-o-chlorophenyl-4-o-hydroxyphenyl-1,3-dioxan-cis-5-yl)hexenoic acid (ICI 192605) and the selective p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor 2-(2-amino-3-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (PD 95089) and by airway epithelial denudation. 9,11-Dideoxy-9α,11α-methanoepoxy-prosta-5Z,13E-dien-1-oic acid (U46619), a TP receptor agonist, elicited enhanced R(stretch) responses in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with 6-isopropoxy-9-oxoxanthene-2-carboxylic acid (AH 6809), a prostaglandin E (EP) receptor 1/prostaglandin D2 (DP)-selective receptor antagonist, and 9α,15R-dihydroxy-11.β-fluoro-15-(2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-2-yl)-16,17,18,19,20-pentanor-prosta-5Z,13E-dien-1-oic acid (AL 8810), a prostaglandin F (FP)-selective receptor antagonist, had no effect, suggesting EP, DP, and FP receptor activation is not involved in amplifying airway smooth muscle R(stretch). These data suggest a role for TP receptor activation and epithelial release of TxA(2) in amplifying airway R(stretch), thus providing novel insights into mechanisms regulating the DI-induced bronchoconstriction seen in asthmatics.
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