Social determinants of health associated with hepatitis C co-infection among people living with HIV: results from the Positive Spaces, Healthy Places study.
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BACKGROUND: Social determinants of health (SDOH) may influence the probability of people living with HIV also being infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). We compared the SDOH of adults co-infected with HCV/HIV with that of HIV mono-infected adults to identify factors independently associated with HCV infection. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 509 HIV-infected adults affiliated with or receiving services from community-based AIDS service organizations (CBAOs). The primary outcome measure was self-reported HCV infection status. Chi-square, Student's t tests, and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were performed to compare SDOH of HCV/HIV co-infected participants with that of HIV mono-infected participants. Multivariable hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with HCV co-infection. RESULTS: Data on 482 (95 HCV/HIV co-infected and 387 HIV mono-infected) adults were analyzed. Compared with participants infected with HIV only, those who were co-infected with HIV and HCV were more likely to be heterosexual, Aboriginal, less educated and unemployed. They were more likely to have a low income, to not be receiving antiretroviral treatment, to live outside the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), to use/abuse substances, experience significant depression, and utilize addiction counselling and needle-exchange services. They also were more likely to report a history of homelessness and perceived housing-related discrimination and to have moved twice or more in the previous 12 months. Factors independently associated with HCV/HIV co-infection were history of incarceration (odds ratio [OR] 8.81, 95% CI 4.43-17.54), history of homelessness (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.59-6.26), living outside of the GTA (OR 3.13, 95% CI 1.59-6.15), and using/abusing substances in the past 12 months (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.07-3.91). CONCLUSION: Differences in SDOH exist between HIV/HCV co-infected and HIV mono-infected adults. History of incarceration, history of homelessness, substance use, and living outside the GTA were independently associated with HCV/HIV co-infection. Interventions that reduce homelessness and incarceration may help prevent HCV infection in people living with HIV.
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