The contribution and interplay of implicit and explicit processes on physical activity behavior: empirical testing of the physical activity adoption and maintenance (PAAM) model Journal Articles uri icon

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  • AbstractThe adoption and maintenance of physical activity (PA) is an important health behavior. This paper presents the first comprehensive empirical test of the Physical Activity Adoption and Maintenance (PAAM) model, which proposes that a combination of explicit (e.g., intention) and implicit (e.g., habit,, affect) self-regulatory processes is involved in PA adoption and maintenance. Data were collected via online questionnaires in English, German, and Italian at two measurement points four weeks apart. The study included 422 participants (Mage= 25.3, SDage= 10.1; 74.2% women) from Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Canada, and the U.S. The study results largely supported the assumptions of the PAAM model, indicating that intentions and habits significantly mediate the effects of past PA on future PA. In addition, the effect of past PA on future PA was shown to be significant through a mediation chain involving affect and habit. Although the hypothesis that trait self-regulation moderates the intention-behavior relationship was not supported, a significant moderating effect of affect on the same relationship was observed. The results suggest that interventions targeting both explicit and implicit processes may be effective in promoting PA adoption and maintenance.


  • Jekauc, Darko
  • Gürdere, Ceren
  • Englert, Chris
  • Strobach, Tilo
  • Bottesi, Gioia
  • Bray, Steven
  • Brown, Denver
  • Fleig, Lena
  • Ghisi, Marta
  • Graham, Jeffrey
  • Martinasek, Mary
  • Tamulevicius, Nauris
  • Pfeffer, Ines

publication date

  • May 6, 2024