A systematic review of postoperative outcomes of kidney stone surgery and meta-analysis of outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in individuals with spinal cord injury
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STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate outcomes of surgical treatment for nephrolithiasis in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: We systematically reviewed the Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, and Web of Science databases for studies examining outcomes of kidney stone procedures in individuals with SCI. Our primary outcomes were stone-free rate (SFR) and complications as categorized by Clavien-Dindo classification. A meta-analysis of comparative studies was performed to assess differences in SFR and complication rate between individuals with and without SCI following PCNL. RESULTS: A total of 27 retrospective and observational articles were included. Interventions for kidney stones included PCNL, shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), and ureteroscopy. Pooled SFR in individuals with SCI was 54%, for SWL, 74% for PCNL, and 36% for ureteroscopy. Meta-analyses found that there was higher rate of grades I (OR 9.54; 95% CI, 3.06 to 29.79), II (OR 3.38; 95% CI, 1.85 to 6.18), and III-V (OR 2.38; 95% CI, 1.35 to 4.19) complications in individuals with SCI compared to non-SCI individuals following PCNL. The rate of infectious complications was also higher in individuals with SCI (OR 6.15; 95% CI, 1.86 to 20.39). However, there was no difference in SFR (OR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.15 to 2.64) between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with SCI are at higher risk of minor, major, and infectious complications following PCNL compared to non-SCI individuals. There was no significant difference between groups in SFR following PCNL, suggesting that PCNL is an effective surgery for kidney stones in individuals with SCI.
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