<i>Garcinia buchananii</i> stem bark extract and its bioactive constituents manniflavanone, GB-2 and buchananiflavanone attenuate intestinal inhibitory neuromuscular transmission
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Garcinia buchananii stem bark extract (GBB), commonly used for treating diarrhea in Africa, triggers ectopic aboral contractions, causing inhibition of propulsive motility in the colon ex vivo. To determine whether or not these effects were associated with decreased inhibitory neuromuscular transmission, the responsible constituent compounds, and mechanisms of action, we studied the effects of GBB and specific fractions and flavanones isolated from GBB on intestinal motility using pellet propulsion assays in guinea pig distal colons. In addition, microelectrode recordings were used to measure the effects on the inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs) in the porcine ileum and descending colon smooth muscle. Psychoactive Drug Screening Program secondary receptor functional assays were used to determine whether or not GBB and its constituent compounds act via purinergic (P2Y) and muscarinic receptors. GBB inhibited propulsive motility, but (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-manniflavanone (MNF), (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-GB-2 (GB-2) and (2R,3S,2″S)-buchananiflavanone (BNF), the main ingredients of GBB, did not affect motility. We discovered that, in the porcine descending colon, IJPs contained purinergic, nitrergic, and nonpurinergic nonnitrergic components. Furthermore, ileal IJPs were purely purinergic. GBB blocked all components of IJPs, while MNF and GB-2 inhibited purinergic IJPs only. BNF inhibited the purinergic and nonpurinergic components of IJPs. MRS2365, a Y1 (P2Y) agonist, did not evoke sustained membrane hyperpolarization in the presence of GBB. However, GBB, MNF, GB-2 and BNF did not affect P2Y or muscarinic receptors. In conclusion, inhibitory neuromuscular transmission in the porcine descending colon involves all components of IJPs. GBB decreases inhibitory neuromuscular transmission, likely by the actions of MNF, GB-2 and BNF. These effects do not involve P2Y or muscarinic receptors.
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