Isolation of MFO inducers from tissues of white suckers caged in bleached kraft mill effluent
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White sucker (Catostomus commersoni) caged for 3 days in a bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) stream had elevated mixed function oxygenase (MFO) activities 15-90 fold those of fish caged in a reference stream. Liver composites of male and female fish were ground and extracted with dichloromethane (DCM), methanol or 50% DCM/methanol, and tested for MFO activity in rat hepatoma cells (H4IIE). There was no difference in the potency of H4IIE EROD induction among the three solvents, so DCM extracts were split into 31 fractions using reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). H4IIE MFO activity was elevated in several fractions, with three early peaks and several later peaks of induction, indicating several classes or compounds causing MFO induction were present in the fish livers. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and chlorinated diphenylethers (CDPEs) were detected in several late-eluting fractions, but concentrations were not high enough for these compounds to be solely responsible for the observed induction. Induction by liver extracts decreased as cell exposure times increased (24, 48 or 72 h), suggesting that some inducers were more easily metabolized and eliminated from the H4IIE cells. In contrast, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2378-TCDD) had similar potency over 24, 48 and 72 h, as it was relatively resistant to metabolism.
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