Marginalization Influences Access, Outcomes, and Discharge Destination Following Total Joint Arthroplasty in Canada’s Universal Healthcare System
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BACKGROUND: The influence of socioeconomic status on outcomes following total joint arthroplasty (TJA) in the Canadian single-payer healthcare system is yet to be elucidated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of socioeconomic status on TJA outcomes. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of 7,304 consecutive TJA (4,456 knees and 2,848 hips) performed between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2019. The primary independent variable was the average census marginalization index. The primary dependent variable was functional outcome scores. RESULTS: The most marginalized patients in both the hip and knee cohorts had significantly worse preoperative and postoperative functional scores. Patients in the most marginalized quintile (V) showed a decreased odds of achieving a minimal important difference in functional scores at 1-year follow-up (odds ratio [OR] 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.20, 0.97], P = .043). Patients in the knee cohort in the most marginalized quintiles (IV and V) had increased odds of being discharged to an inpatient facility with an OR of 2.07 (95% CI [1.06, 4.04], P = .033) and OR of 2.57 (95% CI [1.26, 5.22], P = .009), respectively. Patients in the hip cohort in V quintile (most marginalized) had increased odds of being discharged to an inpatient facility with an OR of 2.24 (95% CI [1.02, 4.96], P = .046). CONCLUSION: Despite being a part of the Canadian universal single-payer healthcare system, the most marginalized patients had worse preoperative and postoperative function, and had increased odds of being discharged to another inpatient facility. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.
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