Evidence for two distinct mechanisms of neurogenesis and cellular pattern formation in regenerated goldfish retinas Journal Articles uri icon

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  • After its destruction by intraocular injection of ouabain, the goldfish retina regenerates, but little is known about the histogenesis of the new tissue, including the structure and formation of regenerated cell mosaic patterns. In an effort to determine how retinal cells are generated and spatially organized within retina regenerated after ouabain injection, in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical techniques were combined with computational analyses of two-dimensional spatial patterns of identified neurons. Labeling with specific opsin riboprobes revealed two distinct cone patterns in the ouabain-injected eyes, each of which was different from the relatively orderly cone patterns of native retina. Central, regenerated regions had sparse aggregates of cones, and a relatively lower density of each cone type. Peripheral regions of experimental retina, likely derived from the circumferential germinal zone, had high densities of all cone types, each of which tended to be distributed randomly. The spatial patterns of inner retinal neurons in experimental eyes were also disorganized with respect to native retina. These results indicate that although some aspects of retinal regeneration resemble normal retinal development and growth, ouabain-induced regeneration does not produce well-organized mosaics of neurons, indicating a failure of the developmental interactions needed for proper pattern formation, which in turn could compromise visual recovery. Furthermore, the distinct cone patterns in different regions of experimental retina support the hypothesis that new goldfish retina arises via two spatially and cellularly distinct mechanisms after exposure to ouabain.


  • Stenkamp, Deborah L
  • Powers, Maureen K
  • Carney, Laural
  • Cameron, David A

publication date

  • March 19, 2001