Impact of the Number of Prior Lines of Therapy and Prior Perioperative Chemotherapy in Patients Receiving Salvage Therapy for Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma: Implications for Trial Design
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BACKGROUND: The differential impact of the number of prior lines of therapy and the setting of prior therapy (perioperative or metastatic) is unclear in advanced urothelial carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten phase II trials of salvage chemotherapy, biologic agent therapy, or both, enrolling 731 patients, were available. Data on the number of prior lines of therapy and the setting of prior therapy were required in addition to known previously recognized prognostic factors: time from prior chemotherapy, hemoglobin level, performance status, and liver metastasis status. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate the association of the number of prior lines and prior perioperative therapy with overall survival (OS) as the primary clinical endpoint. Trial was a stratification factor. RESULTS: A total of 711 patients were evaluable. The overall median progression-free survival and OS were 2.7 and 6.8 months, respectively. The number of prior lines was 1 in 559 patients (78.6%), 2 in 111 (15.6%), 3 in 29 (4.1%), 4 in 10 (1.4%), and 5 in 2 (0.3%). Prior perioperative chemotherapy was given to 277 (39.1%) and chemotherapy for metastatic disease to 454 (64.1%). The number of prior lines was not independently associated with OS (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.86-1.14). Prior perioperative chemotherapy was a favorable factor for OS on univariate but not multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The number of prior lines of therapy and prior perioperative chemotherapy were not independently prognostic in patients with urothelial carcinoma receiving salvage therapy. Adoption of these data in salvage therapy trials should enhance accrual, the interpretability of results, and drug development.