Recent advancements of nanomodified electrodes – Towards point-of-care detection of cardiac biomarkers
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The increasing number of deaths from cardiovascular diseases has become a substantial concern in both developed and underdeveloped countries. Rapid and on-site monitoring of this disease is urgently important to control, prevent and make awareness of public health. Recently, a lot of focus has been placed on nanomaterials and modify these nanomaterials have been explored to detect cardiac biomarkers. By implementing biosensors that are modified with novel recognition elements and more stable nanomaterials, the use of electrochemistry for point-of-care devices is more realistic every day. This review focuses on the current state of nanomaterials conjugated biorecognition elements (enzyme integrated with nanomaterials, antibody conjugated nanomaterials and aptamer conjugated nanomaterials) for electrochemical cardiovascular disease detection. Specifically, a lot of attention has been given to the trends toward more stable biosensors that have increased the potential to be used as point-of-care devices for the detection of cardiac biomarkers due to their high stability and specificity. Moreover, the recent progress on biomolecule-free electrochemical nanosensors for cardiovascular disease detection has been considered. At last, the possibility and drawbacks of some of these techniques for point-of-care cardiac device development in the future have been discussed.
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