Vimentin Exposed on Activated Platelets and Platelet Microparticles Localizes Vitronectin and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Complexes on Their Surface
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Type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), the primary inhibitor of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), is found in plasma and platelets. PAI-1 circulates in complex with vitronectin (Vn), an interaction that stabilizes PAI-1 in its active conform. In this study, we examined the binding of platelet-derived Vn and PAI-1 to the surface of isolated platelets. Flow cytometry indicate that, like P-selectin, PAI-1, and Vn are found on the surface of thrombin- or calcium ionophore-activated platelets and platelet microparticles. The binding of PAI-1 to the activated platelet surface is Vn-dependent. Vn mediates the binding of PAI-1 to platelet surfaces through a high affinity (K(d) of 80 nm) binding interaction with the NH(2) terminus of vimentin, and this Vn-binding domain is expressed on the surface of activated platelets and platelet microparticles. Immunological and functional assays indicate that only -5% of the total PAI-1 in platelet releasates is functionally active, and it co-precipitates with Vn, and the vimentin-enriched cytoskeleton fraction of activated platelet debris. The remaining platelet PAI-1 is inactive, and does not associate with the cytoskeletal debris of activated platelets. Confocal microscopic analysis of platelet-rich plasma clots confirm the co-localization of PAI-1 with Vn and vimentin on the surface of activated platelets, and platelet microparticles. These findings suggest that platelet vimentin may regulate fibrinolysis in plasma and thrombi by binding platelet-derived Vn.PAI-1 complexes.
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