Living in the here and now: interrelationships between impulsivity, mindfulness, and alcohol misuse
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RATIONALE: Impulsivity and mindfulness both emphasize orientation to the present, and both have been linked to alcohol misuse, but the relationship between the two is not clearly understood. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are to examine the relationships between elements of impulsivity and mindfulness and to examine both variables in relation to alcohol misuse. METHOD: Young adults (N = 116) were assessed for alcohol use, mindfulness, and impulsivity using psychometrically validated measures. RESULTS: Numerous significant associations were present among the facets of impulsivity and mindfulness. All impulsivity facets and three facets of mindfulness were related to alcohol consumption and adverse consequences from drinking. After controlling for other variables, only the impulsivity domains of Negative Urgency (NU), Positive Urgency, and delay discounting were significantly related to alcohol consumption and only Lack of Premeditation and NU were significantly associated with drinking-related consequences. CONCLUSIONS: There was considerable overlap between some elements of impulsivity and mindfulness while the overlap was negligible for other facets. The associations between mindfulness and alcohol misuse were entirely a function of impulsivity. In particular, acting on impulses while experiencing a negative affect was significantly associated with level of alcohol consumption and level of alcohol-related risk. Steep discounting of future rewards was associated with alcohol consumption while poor premeditation was associated with adverse drinking consequences. These findings illustrate the importance of jointly studying impulsivity when examining mindfulness traits.
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