I feel the pains of our past water struggles anytime I turn on the tap: Diaspora perceptions and experiences of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) gendered violence in Ghana
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Gender-based violence resulting from water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) insecurity is a major public health problem. WaSH gender-based (WaSH-GBV) is a spatio-temporal experience and has disproportionate health and wellbeing impacts on women and girls. However, the global community of WaSH practitioners and policymakers is yet to adequately address women's vulnerability to violence in relation to WaSH access. Informed by the feminist political ecology of health framework, we conducted in-depth interviews (n = 27, 16 women and 11 men) with Ghanaian immigrants to Canada to explore perceptions of WaSH experiences over lifecourse. Results revealed that participants' perceptions and experiences of GBV are both socially and context dependent, organized around four dimensions: structural, physical, psychological, and sexual. These muti-scalar dimensions of diasporans' WaSH experiences and perceptions in Ghana are discussed along with their implications for policy and practice, specifically in enhancing health equity and water security.