Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Interventions on Nephrolithiasis in Transplanted Kidney Journal Articles uri icon

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  • CONTEXT: De Novo nephrolithiasis in renal transplant can have severe consequences since renal transplantation involves a single functioning kidney with medical and anatomical specificities (heterotopic transplantation on iliac vessels, immunosuppressive treatments, and comorbidities). OBJECTIVE: To systematically review all available evidence on the prevalence of de novo nephrolithiasis in renal transplant, presentation, and stone characteristics, and to report in a meta-analysis the efficacy of stone treatments (extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy [ESWL], medical treatment, percutaneous nephrolithotomy [PCNL], open surgery, and ureteroscopy). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to November 2021 for all relevant publications reporting the management of de novo nephrolithiasis in renal allografts. The primary outcome was stone-free rate (SFR) at 3 mo. Secondary outcomes included prevalence, stone characteristics (size, density, and composition), symptoms on presentation, need for drainage, complications, and recurrence. Data were narratively synthesized in light of methodological and clinical heterogeneity, and a meta-analysis was performed for SFR. The risk of bias of each included study was assessed. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: We included 37 retrospective studies with 553 patients and 612 procedures; of the 612 procedures 20 were antegrade ureteroscopy, 154 retrograde ureteroscopy, 118 PCNL, 25 open surgery, 155 ESWL, and 140 surveillance/medical treatment. The prevalence of nephrolithiasis in renal transplant was 1.0%. The mean stone size on diagnosis was 11 mm (2-50). The overall SFR at 3 mo was 82%: 96% with open surgery, 95% with antegrade ureteroscopy, 86% with PCNL, 81% with retrograde ureteroscopy, and 75% with ESWL. CONCLUSIONS: De novo nephrolithiasis in renal transplant is an infrequent condition. A high SFR were obtained with an antegrade approach (ureteroscopy, PCNL, and open approach) that should be considered in renal transplant patients owing to the heterotopic position of the renal graft. The choice of technique was correlated with stone size: generally ureteroscopy and ESWL for stones 11-12 mm (mean stone size) versus PCNL and open surgery for 17-25 mm stones. PATIENT SUMMARY: De novo nephrolithiasis in renal transplants is an infrequent situation that can have severe consequences on the function of the renal graft. We evaluated the efficacy of each treatment and noted that antegrade approaches (open surgery, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and antegrade ureteroscopy) were associated with the highest stone-free rate. As opposed to the management of nephrolithiasis in native kidney, an antegrade approach should be considered more in renal transplant patients.


  • Yuan, Yuhong
  • Boissier, Romain
  • Rodriguez-Faba, Oscar
  • Zakri, Rhana Hassan
  • Hevia, Vital
  • Budde, Klemens
  • Figueiredo, Arnaldo
  • García, Enrique Lledó
  • Olsburgh, Jonathon
  • Regele, Heinz
  • Yuan, Cathy Yuhong
  • Breda, Alberto

publication date

  • May 2023