Assessing the Putative Anticryptococcal Properties of Crude and Clarified Extracts from Mollusks Journal Articles uri icon

  • Overview
  • Research
  • Identity
  • Additional Document Info
  • View All


  • Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated human fungal pathogen with a global distribution that primarily infects immunocompromised individuals. The widespread use of antifungals in clinical settings, their use in agriculture, and strain hybridization have led to increased evolution of resistance. This rising rate of resistance against antifungals is a growing concern among clinicians and scientists worldwide, and there is heightened urgency to develop novel antifungal therapies. For instance, C. neoformans produces several virulence factors, including intra- and extra-cellular enzymes (e.g., peptidases) with roles in tissue degradation, cellular regulation, and nutrient acquisition. The disruption of such peptidase activity by inhibitors perturbs fungal growth and proliferation, suggesting this may be an important strategy for combating the pathogen. Importantly, invertebrates such as mollusks produce peptidase inhibitors with biomedical applications and anti-microbial activity, but they are underexplored in terms of their usage against fungal pathogens. In this protocol, a global extraction from mollusks was performed to isolate potential peptidase inhibitors in crude and clarified extracts, and their effects against classical cryptococcal virulence factors were assessed. This method supports the prioritization of mollusks with antifungal properties and provides opportunities for the discovery of anti-virulence agents by harnessing the natural inhibitors found in mollusks.


  • Gutierrez-Gongora, Davier
  • Raouf-Alkadhimi, Fouad
  • Prosser, Ryan
  • Geddes-McAlister, Jennifer

publication date

  • December 2, 2022