CORM-3-derived CO modulates polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration across the vascular endothelium by reducing levels of cell surface-bound elastase
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Recently, it has been shown that carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecule (CORM)-released CO can suppress inflammation. In this study, we assessed the effects and potential mechanisms of a ruthenium-based water-soluble CO carrier [tricarbonylchloroglycinate-ruthenium(II) (CORM-3)] in the modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) inflammatory responses in an experimental model of sepsis. Sepsis in mice was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. CORM-3 (3 mg/kg iv) was administered 15 min after the induction of cecal ligation and puncture. PMN accumulation in the lung (myeloperoxidase assay), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and lung vascular permeability (protein content in BAL fluid) were assessed 6 h later. In in vitro experiments, human PMNs were primed with LPS (10 ng/ml) and subsequently stimulated with formyl-methionyl-leucylphenylalanine (fMLP; 100 nM). PMN production of ROS (L-012/dihydrorhodamine-123 oxidation), degranulation (release of elastase), and PMN rolling, adhesion, and migration to/across human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were assessed in the presence or absence of CORM-3 (1-100 muM). The obtained results indicated that systemically administered CORM-3 attenuates PMN accumulation and vascular permeability in the septic lung. Surprisingly, in in vitro experiments, treatment of PMNs with CORM-3 further augmented LPS/fMLP-induced ROS production and the release of elastase. The latter effects, however, were accompanied by an inability of PMNs to mobilize elastase to the cell surface (plasma membrane), an event required for efficient PMN transendothelial migration. The CORM-3-induced decrease in cell surface levels of elastase was followed by decreased PMN rolling/adhesion to HUVECs and complete prevention of PMN migration across HUVECs. In contrast, treatment of HUVECs with CORM-3 had no effect on PMN transendothelial migration. Taken together, these findings indicate that, in sepsis, CORM3-released CO, while further amplifying ROS production and degranulation of PMNs, concurrently reduces the levels of cell surface-bound elastase, which contributes to suppressed PMN transendothelial migration.
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