Carbon Monoxide–Releasing Molecule-401 Suppresses Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Migratory Potential by Modulating F-Actin Dynamics
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Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) suppress inflammation by reducing polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) recruitment to the affected organs. We investigated modulation of PMN-endothelial cell adhesive interactions by water-soluble CORM-401 using an experimental model of endotoxemia in vitro. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) grown on laminar-flow perfusion channels were stimulated with 1 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide for 6 hours and perfused with 100 μmol/L CORM-401 (or inactive compound iCORM-401)-pretreated PMN for 5 minutes in the presence of 1.0 dyn/cm2 shear stress. HUVEC: PMN co-cultures were perfused for additional 15 minutes with PMN-free medium containing CORM-401/inactive CORM-401. The experiments were videorecorded (phase-contrast microscopy), and PMN adhesion/migration were assessed off-line. In parallel, CORM-401-dependent modulation of PMN chemotaxis, F-actin expression/distribution, and actin-regulating pathways [eg, p21-activated protein kinases (PAK1/2) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)] were assessed in response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) stimulation. Pretreating PMN with CORM-401 did not suppress PMN adhesion to HUVEC, but significantly reduced PMN transendothelial migration (P < 0.0001) and fMLP-induced PMN chemotaxis (ie, migration directionality and velocity). These changes were associated with CORM-401-dependent suppression of F-actin levels/cellular distribution and fMLP-induced phosphorylation of PAK1/2 and ERK/JNK MAPK (P < 0.05). CORM-401 had no effect on p38 MAPK activation. In summary, this study demonstrates, for the first time, CORM-401-dependent suppression of neutrophil migratory potential associated with modulation of PAK1/2 and ERK/JNK MAPK signaling and F-actin dynamics.
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