Influence of Prior Exposure to Low-Dose Adapting Radiation on Radiation-Induced Teratogenic Effects in Fetal Mice with VaryingTrp53Function
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Teratogenesis in tails and limb digits of fetal mice with varying Trp53 status was examined after exposure of pregnant females to 4 Gy gamma radiation with and without a prior 30-cGy exposure. Prior low-dose exposure modified the teratogenic effects of radiation in a manner dependent upon Trp53 status and gestation time. A 4-Gy exposure on gestation day 11 resulted in tail shortening and digit abnormalities. A 30-cGy exposure 24 h prior to a 4-Gy radiation exposure on day 11 reduced the extent of both digit abnormalities and the tail-shortening effects in Trp53(+/+) fetuses and also reduced tail shortening in Trp53(+/-) fetuses, but to a lesser extent. However, the pre-exposure enhanced the tail-shortening effects of 4 Gy in Trp53(-/-) fetuses. In contrast, a 30-cGy exposure given 24 h prior to a 4-Gy exposure on gestation day 12 had no effect on the reduced tail length resulting from the 4-Gy exposure of Trp53(+/+) or Trp53(+/-) fetuses, but it partly protected Trp53(-/-) fetuses against reduced tail length. A 4-Gy exposure alone on day 12 did not result in any increase in the frequency of digit abnormalities in Trp53(-/-) fetuses so any protective effect of the preirradiation could not be detected. However, the preirradiation did result in protection against in digit abnormalities in Trp53(+/-) fetuses. We conclude that radiation-induced teratogenesis reflects both Trp53-dependent and independent processes that lead to apoptosis, and these respond differently to prior adapting doses.
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