This presentation will discuss new developments in emergency biological dosimetry and the CRTI (CBRN Research and Technology Initiative) National Biological Dosimetry Response Plan (NBDRP). Biological dosimetry is a technique used to estimate the biological consequences of a radiation exposure and is largely based on chromosome aberration detection. The NBDRP will establish a national network of laboratories to respond to a nuclear event for the purposes of rapid radiation dose estimation for crisis management and for long-term health risk assessment. In the event of a large-scale radiation accident or deliberate act of terrorism this will help guide the actions of emergency officials, emergency responders and health care personnel by providing timely biological dose estimates. The presentation will outline the research initiatives to develop modern techniques used for biological dosimetry. The overall purpose of this presentation is to provide the audience with a brief introduction to radiobiology, radiation-induced DNA damage, the health risks associated with radiation exposure, and the latest cytogenetic techniques used to estimate the risk.