Satellite cells (SCs) and ribosomes are key determinants of the skeletal muscle adaptive response. Both are thought to increase acutely after resistance exercise and chronically with resistance training. However, the acute SC and ribosome exercise response with prior aerobic conditioning is unknown. Fourteen young men and women underwent 6 wk of single-legged aerobic conditioning followed by an acute bout of 300 eccentric contractions on each leg. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of the aerobically conditioned (AC) and the control (CTL) legs before (Pre), 24 (24 h), and 48 (48 h) h post-contractions. Pre-eccentric contractions, 45S pre-rRNA and 5.8S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) expression were lower in the AC leg compared with the CTL leg. SC content (PAX7+ cells/100 fibers) in type I and mixed fibers showed a main effect of condition, where values were greater in the AC leg compared with the CTL. A main effect of condition for Pax7 and MyoD1 mRNA expression was observed where expression was greater in the AC leg compared with the CTL. AC had greater RNA concentration and mRNA expression of Ubf and Tif-1a compared with CTL. Only the AC leg increased (Pre-24h) 45S pre-rRNA, 5.8S ITS, and 28S ITS following eccentric contractions. We discovered that aerobic conditioning increased type-I SC abundance and the acute increase in ribosome content following eccentric contractions.