Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways characterized by inflammation, tightened muscles, and thickened airway walls leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest tightness, and cough in patients. The increased risk of asthma in children of asthmatics parents supports the existence of genetic factors involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. Genome-wide association studies have discovered several single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with asthma. These polymorphisms occur within several genes and can contribute to different asthma phenotypes, affect disease severity, and clinical response to different therapies. The complexity in the etiology of asthma also results from interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Environmental exposures have been shown to increase the prevalence of asthma in individuals who are genetically susceptible. This review summarizes what is currently known about the genetics of asthma in relation to risk, response to common treatments, and gene-environmental interactions.