A framework for understanding how midwives perceive and provide care management for pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes or hypertensive disorders of pregnancy Journal Articles uri icon

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  • BACKGROUND: Both gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are common, and each are associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Midwives may be the first point of care when these conditions arise. This study evaluated the experiences of midwives when providing care to women and people with pregnancies complicated by GDM or HDP. METHODS: A mixed methods study was completed in Ontario, Canada, using a sequential, explanatory approach. A total of 144 online surveys were completed by midwives, followed by 20 semi-structured interviews that were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Survey data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Thematic analysis was used to generate codes from the interview data, which were mapped to the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), to elucidate factors that might influence management. RESULTS: Most of the midwives' clinical behaviours relating to GDM or HDP were in keeping with guidelines and regulatory standards set by existing provincial standards. Six theoretical domains from the TDF appeared to influence midwives'care pathway: "Internal influences" included knowledge, skills and beliefs about capabilities; while "external influences" included social/professional role and identity, environmental context, and social influences. Interprofessional collaboration emerged as a significant factor on both the internal and external levels of influence. CONCLUSIONS: We identified barriers and facilitators that may improve the experiences of midwives and clients when GDM or HDP newly arises in a pregnancy, necessitating further consultation or management by another health care provider.


  • Murray-Davis, Beth
  • Berger, Howard
  • Melamed, Nir
  • Darling, Elizabeth
  • Syed, Maisah
  • Guarna, Giuliana
  • Li, Jenifer
  • Barrett, Jon
  • Ray, Joel G
  • Geary, Michael
  • Mawjee, Karizma
  • Bagheri, Negar
  • McDonald, Sarah

publication date

  • December 2022