A novel kidney disease index reflecting both the albumin-to-creatinine ratio and estimated glomerular filtration rate, predicted cardiovascular and kidney outcomes in type 2 diabetes Academic Article uri icon

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  • Abstract Background The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) are risk factors for diabetes-related outcomes. A composite that captures information from both may provide a simpler way of assessing risk. Methods 9115 of 9901 Researching Cardiovascular Events with a Weekly Incretin in Diabetes (REWIND) participants with both an ACR and eGFR at baseline were included in this post hoc epidemiologic analysis. The hazard of higher baseline levels of 1/eGFR and natural log transformed ACR (calculated as ln [ACR × 100] to eliminate negative values) and their interaction for incident major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), kidney outcomes, and deaths was estimated. The hazard of the geometric mean of these two baseline measures (the kidney disease index or KDI) was also assessed. Results A non-linear relationship was observed between 1/eGFR and all three outcomes, and between ln [ACR × 100] and the kidney outcome. There was also a negative interaction between these two risk factors with respect to MACE and death. Conversely, a linear relationship was noted between the KDI and all three outcomes. People in the highest KDI fifth experienced the highest incidence of MACE, death, and the kidney outcome (4.43, 4.56, and 5.55/100 person-years respectively). C statistics for the KDI were similar to those for eGFR and albuminuria. Conclusions The KDI combines the baseline eGFR and ACR into a novel composite risk factor that has a simple linear relationship with incident serious outcomes in people with diabetes and additional CV risk factors. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01394952.


  • Gerstein, Hertzel Chaim
  • Ramasundarahettige, Chinthanie
  • Avezum, Alvero
  • Basile, Jan
  • Conget, Ignacio
  • Cushman, William C
  • Dagenais, Gilles R
  • Franek, Edward
  • Lakshmanan, Mark
  • Lanas, Fernando
  • Leiter, Lawrence A
  • Pogosova, Nana
  • Probstfield, Jeffrey
  • Raubenheimer, Peter J
  • Riddle, Matthew
  • Shaw, Jonathan
  • Sheu, Wayne H-H
  • Temelkova-Kurktschiev, Theodora
  • Turfanda, Ibrahim
  • Xavier, Denis

publication date

  • August 22, 2022