Calibration of polydimethylsiloxane and polyurethane foam passive air samplers for measuring semi volatile organic compounds using a novel exposure chamber design
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Passive air sampling is increasingly used for air quality monitoring and for personal sampling. In a novel experimental exposure chamber study, 3 types of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, including sheet and wristband) and 1 type of polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air samplers were tested for gas-phase uptake of 200 semi volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) during six months. For 155 SVOCs including PAH, PCB, phthalates, organophosphate esters, musk compounds, organochlorine- and other pesticides, a normalized generic uptake rate (Rs) of 7.6 ± 1.3 m3 d-1 dm-2 and a generic mass transfer coefficient (MTC) of 0.87 ± 0.15 cm s-1 at a wind speed of 1.3 m s-1 were determined. Variability of sampling rates within and between passive sampling media and analyte groups was not statistically significant, supporting the hypothesis of air-side controlled uptake regardless of sampling material. A statistical relationship was developed between the sampling rate and windspeed which can be used to obtain a sampling rate applicable to specific deployment conditions. For 98 SVOCs, partition coefficients (Ksampler-air) for PUF and PDMS were obtained, which determine the duration of linear uptake and capacity of the sampler for gas-phase uptake. Ksampler-air for PDMS were approximately 10 times higher than for PUF, suggesting that PDMS can be deployed for longer time per volume of sampler, while uptake remains in the linear phase. Statistical relationships were developed to estimate Kpuf-air and Kpdms-air from Koa. These results improve the understanding of the performance of PDMS and PUF passive samplers and contribute to the development of PDMS for the use as a promising personal sampler.
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