First Examples of Thallium Chalcogenide Cages. Syntheses, 77Se, 203Tl, and 205Tl NMR Study of the Tl4Se54- and Tl4Se64- Anions, the X-ray Crystal Structure of (2,2,2-crypt-K+)3Tl5Se53-, and Theoretical Studies
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The Tl5Se5(3-) anion has been obtained by extracting KTlSe in ethylenediamine in the presence of 2,2,2-crypt. The salt, (2,2,2-crypt-K+)3Tl5Se5(3-), crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P1, with Z = 2 and a = 11.676(2) A, b = 16.017(3) A, c = 25.421(5) A, alpha = 82.42(3) degrees, beta = 88.47(3) degrees, gamma = 69.03(3) degrees at -123 degrees C. Two other mixed oxidation state TlI/TlIII anions; Tl4Se5(4-) and Tl4Se6(4-), have been obtained by extracting KTlSe into liquid NH3 in the presence of 2,2,2-crypt and have been characterized in solution by low-temperature 77Se, 203Tl, and 205Tl NMR spectroscopy and were shown to exist as a 1:1 equilibrium mixture at -40 degrees C. The couplings, 1J(203,205Tl-77Se) and 2J(203,205Tl-203,205Tl), have been observed for Tl4Se5(4-) and Tl4Se6(4-) and have been used to arrive at the solution structures of both anions. Structural assignments were achieved by detailed analyses and simulations of all spin multiplets that comprise the 205,203Tl NMR spectra and that arise from natural abundance 205,203Tl and 77Se or enriched 77Se isotopomer distributions. The structures of all three anions are based on a Tl4Se4 cube in which Tl and Se atoms occupy alternate corners. There are one and two exo-selenium atoms bonded to thallium in Tl4Se5(4-) and Tl4Se6(4-), respectively, so that these thalliums are four-coordinate and possess a formal oxidation state of +3 and the remaining three-coordinate thallium atoms are in the +1 oxidation state. The structure of Tl5Se5(3-) may be formally regarded as an adduct in which Tl+ is coordinated to the unique exo-selenium and to two seleniums in a cube face containing the TlIII atom. The Tl4Se5(4-), Tl4Se6(4-), and Tl5Se5(3-) anions and the presently unknown, but structurally related, Tl4Se4(4-) anion can be described as electron-precise cages. Ab initio methods at the MP2 level of theory show that Tl4Se5(4-), Tl4Se6(4-), and Tl5Se5(3-) exhibit true minima and display geometrical parameters that are in excellent agreement with their experimental cubanoid structures, and that Tl4Se4(4-) is cube-shaped (Td point symmetry). The gas-phase energetics associated with plausible routes to the formation and interconversions of these anions have been determined by ab initio methods and assessed. It is proposed that all three cubanoid anions are derived from the known Tl2Se2(2-), TlSe3(3-), Se2(2-), and polyselenide anions that have been shown to be present in the solutions they are derived from.
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