Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Renal Cell Carcinoma: Oncological and Renal Function Outcomes
Additional Document Info
To evaluate oncological and renal function outcomes of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for medically inoperable patients with localised renal cell carcinoma.
Materials and methods
Consecutive patients treated with curative intent SBRT (30-45 Gy in five fractions or 42 Gy in three fractions) were included. Data on local control (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] v1.1), distant metastasis, impact on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proportional ipsilateral and contralateral renal functions (measured through renal scans) were collected. Univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to determine association of variables with oncological and renal function outcomes.
Seventy-four patients were analysed. The median follow-up was 27.8 months (interquartile range 17.6-41.7). Fifty-seven per cent had tumours ≥ T1b. One-, 2- and 4-year cumulative incidence of local failure was 5.85, 7.77 and 7.77%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of distant metastasis at 2 years was 4.24%. On multivariable analysis, a lower planning target volume (PTV) mean dose (P = 0.019) and a larger PTV (P = 0.005) were significantly associated with the risk of developing local failure. A lower PTV maximum dose (P = 0.039) was significantly associated with the risk of developing distant metastasis. The median change in global eGFR (ml/min) from pre-SBRT levels was -7.0 (interquartile range -14.5 to -1.0) at 1 year and -11.5 (interquartile range -19.5 to -4.0) at 2 years. The proportion of ipsilateral (differential) renal function decreased over time from 47% of overall renal function pre-SBRT to 36% at 2 years, whereas the proportion of contralateral renal function correspondingly improved. On multivariable analysis, a higher volume of uninvolved renal cortex (P < 0.0001) was significantly associated with a smaller decrease in eGFR over time.
In this large institutional cohort, oncological outcomes of renal cell carcinoma treated with SBRT were favourable and a longitudinal decline in renal function in the ipsilateral kidney and compensatory increase in the contralateral kidney were observed. Clinical and dosimetric factors were significantly associated with oncological and renal function outcomes.