An intersectional approach to identifying factors associated with anxiety and depression following the COVID-19 pandemic Journal Articles uri icon

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  • AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic is impacting mental health, with some populations bearing a greater burden. In this cross-sectional online study, we examined the personal and intersectional factors associated with increased symptoms of anxiety and depression following the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed pre- and post-pandemic levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 (GAD-2) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scales, respectively. The study included 1847 participants, with an age range of 18 to 79 years and representing 43 countries. Variables with significance (p < 0.05) in predicting post-pandemic GAD-2 and PHQ-9 scores were pre-pandemic scores on the same scales, an interaction between increasing age and non-man gender, and an interaction between non-man gender and having children. Health practitioners, psychiatrists, and policy makers need to be aware and respond to the mental health burden of the pandemic on women and other gendered individuals, especially those who care for children.


  • Seens, Hoda
  • Lu, Ze
  • Fraser, James
  • MacDermid, Joy
  • Walton, David M
  • Grewal, Ruby

publication date

  • July 6, 2022