Decreased Diastolic Blood Pressure and Average Grip Strength in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes Compared With Controls: An Analysis of Data From the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging
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OBJECTIVES: Our aim in this study was to determine whether aging individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have differences in cardiovascular health, assessed by blood pressure, and skeletal muscle function, assessed by grip strength, compared with matched nondiabetic controls (CON). METHODS: This investigation was a retrospective cohort analysis using baseline and 3-year follow-up data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to examine the association between sociodemographic, health, behavioural and T1D-specific variables on blood pressure and grip strength in T1D and CON groups. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the average population changes in blood pressure and grip strength from baseline to follow up. RESULTS: The sample included 126 individuals (63 T1D and 63 CON). Systolic blood pressure was not significantly different between groups at baseline or follow up (p>0.05). However, compared with CON, diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower at both time-points in the T1D group (p<0.001). Grip strength was consistently lower among persons with T1D (p=0.03). In the multivariate regression model, body mass index, age and sex were significantly associated with diastolic blood pressure and grip strength in both groups. In the T1D group, disease duration accounted for a large proportion of the variance in diastolic blood pressure and grip strength (17% and 9%, respectively). The rate of decline in diastolic blood pressure and grip strength did not differ between groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Diastolic blood pressure and grip strength appear to be consistently lower and differentially regulated in individuals with T1D vs CON. Aging individuals with T1D may be at risk of premature morbidity and mortality.
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