The five-factor modified frailty index predicts adverse postoperative and chemotherapy outcomes in gynecologic oncology
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IntroductionFrailty is increasingly recognized as a predictor of postoperative morbidity and oncologic outcomes. Evidence of the predictive value of frailty assessment in gynecologic oncology remains sparse.
ObjectivesTo evaluate the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) comorbidity-based modified Frailty Index-5 (mFI-5) as predictor of severe postoperative complications, non-completion of chemotherapy and other patient-centered outcomes in gynecologic oncology patients >70 years-old undergoing surgery.
MethodsProspectively-collected NSQIP data and retrospective chart review of patients undergoing elective laparotomies for gynecologic malignances at a tertiary academic center in Ontario, Canada, between 01/2016-09/2020 were reviewed. Primary outcome was rate of 30-day Clavien-Dindo (Clavien) grade III-V complications. Secondary outcomes included Clavien II-V complications, postoperative length of stay (LOS), non-home discharge and non-completion of chemotherapy. Logistic regression analyses and receiver-operator curves were performed.
ResultsTwo-hundred and fifty-nine patients were included; 103 were planned to receive adjuvant chemotherapy. Fifty-three patients (20.5%) had an mFI ≥ 2 and were categorized as frail. On multivariable analyses, frailty independently predicted grade III-V complications (OR 24.49, 95%CI 9.72-70.67, p < 0.0001), grade II-V complications (OR 4.64, 95%CI 2.31-9.94, p < 0.0001), non-home discharge (OR 7.37, 95%CI 2.81-20.46, p < 0.0001), LOS ≥ 7d (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.54-8.6, p = 0.003) and non-completion of chemotherapy (OR 8.42, 95%CI 2.46-32.79, p = 0.001). Adjusted C-statistics demonstrated strong predictive value of the mFI-5 for grade III-V (0.92, 95%CI 0.86-0.97) and grade II-V (0.74, 95%CI 0.68-0.8) complications as well as non-home discharge (0.86, 95%CI 0.78-0.95) and chemotherapy non-completion (0.87, 95%CI 0.8-0.95).
ConclusionFrailty as assessed with the mFI-5 predicted adverse postoperative and chemotherapy outcomes in gynecologic oncology patients aged ≥70 undergoing a laparotomy. The mFI-5 is a concise tool that can be used for routine frailty screening and risk stratification.
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