Personalised immunotherapy in sepsis: a scoping review protocol Journal Articles uri icon

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  • IntroductionSepsis, a life-threatening organ dysfunction syndrome occurring in the context of severe infections, remains a major burden on global health with high morbidity and high mortality rates. Despite recent advances in the understanding of its pathophysiology, the treatment of sepsis remains supportive of nature with few interventions specifically designed for treating this complex syndrome. The focus of sepsis trials has increasingly shifted towards targeting excessive inflammation and immunosuppression using immunomodulatory agents. However, it remains uncertain how to identify patients that could benefit from such treatment, whether treatments can be tailored to an individual’s immune profile, or at which stage of the disease the intervention should be initiated. In this scoping review, we provide a comprehensive overview of current available literature on immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive therapies against sepsis.Methods and analysisThe aim of this scoping review is to describe and summarise current literature evaluating immunotherapy in adult patients with sepsis. The review will be performed using the framework formulated by Arksey and O’Malley. A comprehensive literature and study collection will be executed by searching PubMed, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL and to identify clinical trials and cohort studies concerning immunotherapy in adult patients with sepsis. Screening will be performed independently and in duplicate by two reviewers who will also independently extract data into prespecified spreadsheets. We will summarise evidence in tabular format with descriptive statistics. The reported evidence will convey knowledge on the types of immunotherapies studied, and currently being studied, in adult patients with sepsis.Ethics and disseminationApproval from a medical ethics committee is not required. Once completed, the review will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. These results will be of value to clinicians and researchers with an interest in advancing sepsis care.


  • Slim, Marleen A
  • van Mourik, Niels
  • Dionne, Joanna
  • Oczkowski, Simon
  • Netea, MG
  • Pickkers, Peter
  • Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J
  • Müller, Marcella CA
  • van der Poll, Tom
  • Wiersinga, W Joost
  • Vlaar, Alexander PJ
  • van Vught, Lonneke A

publication date

  • May 2022