Obesity is the major driver of the global epidemic in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In individuals with obesity, impaired insulin action leads to increased lipolysis in adipocytes, resulting in elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels that promote peripheral insulin resistance, a hallmark of T2D. Here we show, by using a combined genetic/biochemical/pharmacologic approach, that increased adipocyte lipolysis can be prevented by selective activation of adipocyte Gq signaling in vitro and in vivo (in mice). Activation of this pathway by a Gq-coupled designer receptor or by an agonist acting on an endogenous adipocyte Gq-coupled receptor (CysLT2 receptor) greatly improved glucose and lipid homeostasis in obese mice or in mice with adipocyte insulin receptor deficiency. Our findings identify adipocyte Gq signaling as an essential regulator of whole-body glucose and lipid homeostasis and should inform the development of novel classes of GPCR-based antidiabetic drugs.