Purpose: Physiotherapists work with people with chronic conditions and can act as catalysts for behavioural change. Physiotherapy has also seen a shift to a bio-psychosocial model of health management and interdisciplinary care, which is important in the context of chronic conditions. This scoping review addressed the research question “How do physiotherapists use mental health–based interventions in their treatment of individuals with chronic conditions?” Method: The Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases were searched, and a variety of study designs were included. Data were categorized and descriptively analyzed. Results: Data were extracted from 103 articles. Low back pain (43; 41.7%) and non-specified pain (16; 15.5%) were the most commonly researched chronic conditions, but other chronic conditions were also represented. Outpatient facilities were the most common setting for intervention (68; 73.1%). A total of 73 (70.9%) of the articles involved cognitive–behavioural therapy, and 41 (40.0%) included graded exercise or graded activity as a mental health intervention. Conclusions: Physiotherapists can use a variety of mental health interventions in the treatment of chronic conditions. More detailed descriptions of treatment and training protocols would be helpful for incorporating these techniques into clinical practice.