Wheeze trajectories: Determinants and outcomes in the CHILD Cohort Study
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BackgroundWheezing in early life is associated with asthma in adulthood; however, the determinants of wheezing trajectories and their associations with asthma and lung function in childhood remain poorly understood.
ObjectiveIn the CHILD Cohort Study, we aimed to identify wheezing trajectories and examine the associations between these trajectories, risk factors, and clinical outcomes at age 5 years.
MethodsWheeze data were collected at 8 time points from 3 months to 5 years of age. We used group-based trajectory models to derive wheeze trajectories among 3154 children. Associations with risk factors and clinical outcomes were analyzed by weighted regression models.
ResultsWe identified 4 trajectories: a never/infrequent trajectory, transient wheeze, intermediate-onset (preschool) wheeze, and persistent wheeze. Higher body mass index was a common risk factor for all wheeze trajectories compared with that in the never/infrequent group. The unique predictors for specific wheeze trajectories included male sex, lower respiratory tract infections, and day care attendance for transient wheeze; paternal history of asthma, atopic sensitization, and child genetic risk score of asthma for intermediate wheeze; and maternal asthma for persistent wheeze. Blood eosinophil counts were higher in children with the intermediate wheeze trajectory than in those children with the other trajectories at the ages of 1 and 5 years. All wheeze trajectories were associated with decreased lung function and increased risk of asthma at age 5 years.
ConclusionsWe identified 4 distinct trajectories in children from 3 months to 5 years of age, reflecting different phenotypes of early childhood wheeze. These trajectories were characterized by different biologic and physiologic traits and risk factors.
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