In vivo and in vitro short-term bisphenol A exposures disrupt testicular energy metabolism and negatively impact spermatogenesis in zebrafish
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This study investigated the in vitro and short-term in vivo effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) on testicular energy metabolism and morphology in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Testes were incubated in vitro for 1 h or fish were exposed in vivo to BPA in the tank water for 12 h. Testicular lactate, glycogen and cholesterol were measured and 14C-deoxy-d-glucose uptake and activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined. In addition, testis samples from the in vivo exposures were subject to digital analysis of testicular cells using Ilastik software and the Pixel Classification module and estimation of apoptosis by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) immunohistochemical analysis. Our results from in vitro studies showed that BPA at 10 pM and 10 μM decreased testicular lactate content, glycogen content and LDH activity, but increased testicular AST activity. In addition, only BPA at 10 pM significantly decreased testicular ALT activity and cholesterol content. However, 14C-deoxy-d-glucose uptake was not changed. Furthermore, our results from in vivo studies showed that 10 pM BPA but not 10 μM BPA reduced testicular content of lactate and glycogen. In addition, both BPA concentrations decreased AST activity, whereas only BPA at 10 μM reduced ALT activity. However, LDH activity was not changed. Additionally, both concentrations of BPA induced spermatocyte apoptosis and a decrease in the proportion of the surface area of spermatids and spermatozoa. Collectively these data suggest that short-term BPA exposure affects energy metabolism and spermatogenesis in male zebrafish.
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