Low density electrical source imaging of the ictal onset zone in the surgical evaluation of children with epilepsy
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PURPOSE: To investigate the utility of Low Density (LD) Electrical Source Imaging (ESI) to model the ictal onset zone (IOZ) for the surgical work up of children with medically refractory epilepsy. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of 12 patients from a district and regional pediatric epilepsy center, who underwent focal resections between 2014 and 2019. ESI was generated using the Curry 8 software, incorporating T1 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans and scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Concordance of the ictal LD-ESI localizations to the epileptogenic zone was assessed by comparing the location of the ictal LD-ESI to the focal resection margins on neuroimaging and noting the post-operative outcomes at one year. Localizations determined by ictal LD-ESI were also compared to interictal LD-ESI, positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and interictal magnetoencephalography (MEG). RESULTS: Ictal ESI correctly localized the ictal onset zone in 4/6 patients, with all four being seizure free at one year. Similarly, interictal ESI localized the irritative zone in 7/9 patients with focal resections, with 6/7 being seizure free at one year. Additionally, we observed ictal ESI to be concordant to interictal ESI in 5/6 patients. Ictal ESI and interictal ESI were concordant to interictal MEG in 3/6 patients. Ictal ESI was concordant with FDG-PET in 6/7 cases. CONCLUSION: IOZ source localization through LD-ESI is a promising complementary method of assessing the epileptogenic focus in children. These findings may support the inclusion of ictal LD-ESI within the pre-surgical evaluation of children to supplement current diagnostic tools.
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