Analyzing the Biochemical Alteration of Green Algae During Chronic Exposure to Triclosan Based on Synchrotron-Based Fourier Transform Infrared Spectromicroscopy
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The study explored the chronic toxicity of triclosan to green microalga Chlorococcum sp. under multiple interactions among multiple environmental conditions. This is the first study on chronic algal toxicity to combine synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy, factorial analysis, principal component analysis, and stepwise-cluster analysis. Such a combination helps to reveal the toxic mechanism at the molecular level and explore the inner correlationship among multiple environmental conditions. In the 120-h test, nitrogen content became the most significant factor of the physiochemical properties. Some insignificant factors in the 48-h test became significant in the 120-h test. Temperature * nitrogen content, temperature * phosphorus content, and pH * phosphorus content were the most significant two-order interactions. Temperature * pH * NaCl concentration and temperature * NaCl concentration * phosphorus content were the most significant three-order interactions. More high-order interactions became significant in the 120-h test, indicating the complexity and impacts of all the factors may increase when time was extended. The chronic toxicity of triclosan presented more distinguishable variations among treatments based on biochemical alterations. These results demonstrate that the sensitivity and fragility of algae to triclosan can be amplified with time extension. Long-term exposure can be applied to better evaluate and predict the environmental toxicity behavior of triclosan. It can also help with environmental evaluation and risk management of real-world triclosan toxicity.
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