Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is an abundant plasma protein that binds factor XIIa (FXIIa) and inhibits factor XII (FXII) autoactivation and FXIIa-mediated activation of FXI. Polyphosphate (polyP), a potent procoagulant released from activated platelets, may serve as a physiological activator of the contact system. Previously, we showed that HRG binds DNA and neutralizes its procoagulant activity. Consequently, our goal was to determine whether the capacity of HRG to bind polyanions enables it to regulate polyP-induced thrombosis. In a plate-based assay, immobilized polyP bound HRG, FXII, and FXIIa in a zinc-dependent manner. Basal and polyP-induced thrombin generation was greater in plasma from HRG-deficient mice than in plasma from wild-type mice. Intraperitoneal injection of polyP shortened the activated partial thromboplastin time, enhanced thrombin generation, increased thrombin-antithrombin levels, reduced lung perfusion, and promoted pulmonary fibrin deposition to a greater extent in HRG-deficient mice than in wild-type mice, effects that were abrogated with FXII knockdown. HRG thus attenuates the procoagulant and prothrombotic effects of polyP in an FXII-dependent manner by modulating the contact system.