Real-time prediction of river chloride concentration using ensemble learning Academic Article uri icon

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abstract

  • Real-time river chloride prediction has received a lot of attention for its importance in chloride control and management. In this study, an artificial neural network model (i.e., multi-layer perceptron, MLP) and a statistical inference model (i.e., stepwise-cluster analysis, SCA) are developed for predicting chloride concentration in stream water. Then, an ensemble learning model based on MLP and SCA is proposed to further improve the modeling accuracy. A case study of hourly river chloride prediction in the Grand River, Canada is presented to demonstrate the model applicability. The results show that the proposed ensemble learning model, MLP-SCA, provides the best overall performance compared with its two ensemble members in terms of RMSE, MAPE, NSE, and R2 with values of 11.58 mg/L, 27.55%, 0.90, and 0.90, respectively. Moreover, MLP-SCA is more competent for predicting extremely high chloride concentration. The prediction of observed concentrations above 150 mg/L has RMSE and MAPE values of 9.88 mg/L and 4.40%, respectively. The outstanding performance of the proposed MLP-SCA, particularly in extreme value prediction, indicates that it can provide reliable chloride prediction using commonly available data (i.e., conductivity, water temperature, river flow rate, and rainfall). The high-frequency prediction of chloride concentration in the Grand River can supplement the existing water quality monitoring programs, and further support the real-time control and management of chloride in the watershed. MLP-SCA is the first ensemble learning model for river chloride prediction and can be extended to other river systems for water quality prediction.

publication date

  • December 2021