Suicidal Risk in Women with Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Journal Articles uri icon

  • Overview
  • Research
  • Identity
  • Additional Document Info
  • View All


  • Purpose: Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) experience substantial functional impairment and decreased quality of life. While previous research has highlighted a relationship between premenstrual disturbances and suicide risk, no meta-analysis has been conducted to quantitatively assess the findings. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted by searching the literature in three databases (Pubmed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE) on July 15, 2020. Studies that assessed the relationship between suicidality (attempt, ideation, and/or plan) and premenstrual disturbance (PMDD, PMS, and/or premenstrual symptoms) were included. Results: Thirteen studies were included in the qualitative review (n = 10 included in meta-analysis). Results revealed that women with PMDD are almost seven times at higher risk of suicide attempt (OR: 6.97; 95% CI: 2.98-16.29, p < 0.001) and almost four times as likely to exhibit suicidal ideation (OR: 3.95; 95% CI: 2.97-5.24, p < 0.001). Similarly, women with PMS are also at increased risk of suicidal ideation (OR: 10.06; 95% CI: 1.32 to -76.67, p = 0.03), but not for suicide attempt (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 0.77 to -4.46, p = 0.17). Conclusions: Women with PMDD and PMS are at higher risk of suicidality compared with women without premenstrual disturbances. These findings support routine suicidal risk assessments for women who suffer from moderate-to-severe premenstrual disturbance. Furthermore, psychosocial treatments for women diagnosed with PMS/PMDD should consider and target suicidality to minimize risk and improve well-being.


  • Prasad, Divya
  • Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, Bianca
  • Kidd, Katrina N
  • de Azevedo Cardoso, Taiane
  • Frey, Benicio

publication date

  • December 1, 2021