Neoadjuvant Vaccination Provides Superior Protection against Tumor Relapse following Surgery Compared with Adjuvant Vaccination
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Tumors that recur following surgical resection of melanoma are typically metastatic and associated with poor prognosis. Using the murine B16F10 melanoma and a robust antimelanoma vaccine, we evaluated immunization as a tool to improve tumor-free survival following surgery. We investigated the utility of vaccination in both neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. Surprisingly, neoadjuvant vaccination was far superior and provided approximately 100% protection against tumor relapse. Neoadjuvant vaccination was associated with enhanced frequencies of tumor-specific T cells within the tumor and the tumor-draining lymph nodes following resection. We also observed increased infiltration of antigen-specific T cells into the area of surgery. This method should be amenable to any vaccine platform and can be readily extended to the clinic.
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