Mechanisms that allow vaccination against an oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus-encoded transgene to enhance safety without abrogating oncolysis Academic Article uri icon

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abstract

  • AbstractVaccination can prevent viral infections via virus-specific T cells, among other mechanisms. A goal of oncolytic virotherapy is replication of oncolytic viruses (OVs) in tumors, so pre-existing T cell immunity against an OV-encoded transgene would seem counterproductive. We developed a treatment for melanomas by pre-vaccinating against an oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-encoded tumor antigen. Surprisingly, when the VSV-vectored booster vaccine was administered at the peak of the primary effector T cell response, oncolysis was not abrogated. We sought to determine how oncolysis was retained during a robust T cell response against the VSV-encoded transgene product. A murine melanoma model was used to identify two mechanisms that enable this phenomenon. First, tumor-infiltrating T cells had reduced cytopathic potential due to immunosuppression. Second, virus-induced lymphopenia acutely removed virus-specific T cells from tumors. These mechanisms provide a window of opportunity for replication of oncolytic VSV and rationale for a paradigm change in oncolytic virotherapy, whereby immune responses could be intentionally induced against a VSV-encoded melanoma-associated antigen to improve safety without abrogating oncolysis.

authors

  • AuYeung, Amanda WK
  • Mould, Robert C
  • Stegelmeier, Ashley A
  • van Vloten, Jacob P
  • Karimi, Khalil
  • Woods, J Paul
  • Petrik, James
  • Wood, Geoffrey A
  • Bridle, Byram W

publication date

  • December 2021