Exploring Gene-Environment Relationships in Cardiovascular Disease
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Identifying gene-environment interactions that affect cardiovascular disease or associated cardiometabolic diseases may identify novel pathways of cardiovascular disease development, and improve our understanding of how genetic factors impact cardiovascular risk. Several studies have identified environmental or behavioural factors that alter genetic risks associated with cardiovascular disease, lipid traits, diabetes/metabolic syndrome, obesity, and hypertension. Though some interactions have been consistently observed, most require replication in additional studies. Moreover, further research is needed to identify the mechanisms underlying these interactions, and their clinical impact. This review will examine the current evidence supporting gene-environment interactions in cardiometabolic diseases, and highlight additional steps that are needed to determine the clinical utility of these observations.
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