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  • Specific communication disabilities affect the ability to understand and produce language. The most common hearing disabilities are congenital deafness and ageā€related hearing impairments. The primary causes for difficulties with the production of spoken language are traumatic brain injury, stroke, and dementia (Alzheimer's and related diseases). Of additional relevance is the impact of visual impairment on reading and writing and on following nonverbal cues in conversation. Disability of any type creates psychosocial issues associated with personal and social adjustment, identity, and interactions with others.


  • Ryan, Ellen
  • Bouchard Ryan, Ellen
  • Bajorek, Selina
  • Anas, Ann P