The Superficial “Swing-Down” Quadriceps Tendon Autograft Is a Viable Option for Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review
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PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review is to ascertain the reported clinical outcomes and complication profiles of medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction performed using a superficial "swing-down" quadriceps tendon autograft. METHODS: Three databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE) were searched from January 1, 2000, to April 06, 2020. Keywords used in the search included: "medial patellofemoral ligament" and "reconstruction". After screening based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, patient demographics, graft type, outcomes, and complications were extracted. Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies criteria were used to assess the quality of each included study. RESULTS: Eleven studies were included, comprising data from 226 patients with mean follow up ranging from 12 to 38 months. All reconstructions used a superficial "swing-down" quadriceps tendon autograft fixed at 20-30 degrees of knee flexion where reported. Eight of eleven studies reported significant improvement in patient reported outcomes such as Kujala score, Lysholm score, and Tegner score. The mean preoperative Kujala score ranged from 35.8 to 82.1 (167 patients), while the mean postoperative Kujala score ranged from 88.4 to 94.8 (197 patients). The mean of the preoperative Lysholm score ranged from 43.3 to 79.3 (77 patients), while the mean of the postoperative Lysholm score ranged from 81.9 to 90.9 (99 patients). The I2 statistic for Lysholm and Kujala scores was 94% and 97%, respectively. Across data reported on 194 patients, there was no incidence of patellar redislocation, patellar fracture, or graft site morbidity. CONCLUSION: The quadriceps tendon produced improved clinical outcomes with low rates of recurrent postoperative patellar dislocation. These data suggest that the quadriceps tendon remains a suitable alternative for MPFL reconstruction and should remain part of the arsenal of knee ligament surgeons. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Systematic review of Level III and IV studies.
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