Ultrahigh Efficiency and Minimalist Intracellular Delivery of Macromolecules Mediated by Latent-Photothermal Surfaces
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Intracellular delivery of exogenous macromolecules by photothermal methods is still not widely employed despite its universal and clear effect on cell membrane rupture. The main causes are the unsatisfactory delivery efficiency, poor cell activity, poor cell harvest, and sophisticated operation; these challenges stem from the difficulty of simply controlling laser hotspots. Here, we constructed latent-photothermal surfaces based on multiwall carbon nanotube-doped poly(dimethyl siloxane), which can deliver cargoes with high delivery efficiency and cell viability. Also, cell release and harvest efficiencies were not affected by coordinating the hotspot content and surface structure. This system is suitable for use with a wide range of cell lines, including hard-to-transfect types. The delivery efficiency and cell viability were shown to be greater than 85 and 80%, respectively, and the cell release and harvest efficiency were greater than 95 and 80%, respectively. Moreover, this system has potential application prospects in the field of cell therapy, including stem cell neural differentiation and dendritic cell vaccines.