Prospective, Single-Arm Trial Evaluating Changes in Uptake Patterns on Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen–Targeted 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT in Patients with Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Starting Abiraterone or Enzalutamide Academic Article uri icon

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  • Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) with small molecules targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is being adopted as a clinical standard for prostate cancer (PCa) imaging. In this study, we evaluated changes in uptake on PSMA-targeted PET in men starting abiraterone or enzalutamide. Methods: This prospective, single-arm, two-center, exploratory clinical trial enrolled men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) initiating abiraterone or enzalutamide. Each patient was imaged with 18F-DCFPyL at baseline and within 2-4 months after starting therapy. Patients were followed for up to 48 months from enrollment. A central review evaluated baseline and follow-up PET scans recording change in maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) at all disease sites and classifying the pattern of change. Two parameters: the delta percent SUVmax (DPSM) of all lesions and the delta absolute SUVmax (DASM) of all lesions were derived. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate time to therapy change (TTTC) and overall survival (OS). Results: Sixteen evaluable patients were accrued to the study. Median TTTC was 9.6 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 6.9-14.2) and median OS was 28.6 months (95% CI 18.3-not available (N/A)). Patients with a mixed-but-predominantly-increased pattern of radiotracer uptake had shorter TTTC and OS. Men with low DPSM had median TTTC 12.2 months (95% CI 11.3-N/A) and median OS 37.2 months (95% CI 28.9-N/A), while those with high DPSM had median TTTC 6.5 months (95% CI 4.6-N/A, P = 0.0001) and median OS 17.8 months (95% CI 13.9-N/A, P = 0.02). Men with low DASM had median TTTC 12.2 months (95% CI 11.3-N/A) and median OS N/A (95% CI 37.2 months-N/A), while those with high DASM had median TTTC 6.9 months (95% CI 6.1-N/A, P = 0.003) and median OS 17.8 months (95% CI 13.9-N/A, P = 0.002). Conclusion: Findings on PSMA-targeted PET 2-4 months after initiation of abiraterone or enzalutamide are associated with TTTC and OS. Development of new lesions and/or increasing intensity of radiotracer uptake at sites of baseline disease are poor prognostic findings suggesting shorter TTTC and OS.


  • Zukotynski, Katherine
  • Emmenegger, Urban
  • Hotte, Sebastien
  • Kapoor, Anil
  • Fu, Wei
  • Blackford, Amanda L
  • Valliant, John F
  • Bénard, François
  • Kim, Chun K
  • Markowski, Mark C
  • Eisenberger, Mario A
  • Antonarakis, Emmanuel S
  • Pienta, Kenneth J
  • Gorin, Michael A
  • Lubanovic, Matthew
  • Kim, Jihyun
  • Pomper, Martin G
  • Cho, Steve Y
  • Rowe, Steven P

publication date

  • October 2021